Mexican Independence Day 16 de Septiembre


El Grito every 16th of September is the Mexican Fiesta par excellence! On this day Mexicans all over the world celebrate Mexico’s independence from Spanish rule.

This 2019 Mexico commemorates   219 years of Independence from Spanish rule and 119 years of its Revolution that began in 1910 and toppled dictator Porfirio Diaz.  Indigenous peoples were the first to inhabit what is now known as Mexico. They founded great civilizations such as the Olmec, the Teotihuacan, MayaToltec, and of course the most powerful of all, the Aztec Empire.

After Christopher Columbus “discovered” America, the Spaniards carried out expeditions to find gold and riches from these faraway lands.   In 1521, about 500 Spanish soldiers arrived in Mexico, headed by an ambitious man: Hernán Cortés.  At this time, the Aztecs had built a great empire that ruled over all Mesoamérica. So the Spaniards decided to direct their attacks towards them.

The indigenous nations that were under the Aztec rule were tired of the physical and economic hardships imposed upon them by this empire.  This circumstance made them think that by helping the Conquerors defeat the Aztecs, they would be better off.  So they decided to aid the Spaniards.

This is how the Conquest of what is now Mexico began.

On the 13th of August 1521, Cuauhtémoc, the last Aztec emperor was captured. The indigenous allies of the Spaniards raided Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec empire.

They didn’t know it at the time, but they had been liberated from one oppressor and fallen in the hands of a much more powerful authoritarian.

This was the beginning of three centuries of Spanish rule. The new colony was namedNueva España, New Spain.

The years that followed were devastating. The conquerors brought with them diseases unknown to the natives. The epidemics that broke out as well as the merciless workload imposed upon the natives dramatically diminished the Indian population.   There were approximately 20 million Indians inhabiting this territory before the Conquest, and after just one century of Spanish rule there were only 1 million left!

Don Miguel Hidalgo: Father of Our Independence

Father of Mexico’s Independence

by Angie Galicia

Late one September evening the name of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla became forever engraved in Mexico’s history.  Since that night, his life as well as that of Mexico, changed radically.

Before that historic moment when his voice cried out to demand Mexico’s independence from the Spanish crown El Cura Hidalgo, Father Hidalgo, as he was called, was exactly that — an old priest from a parish in the small town ofDoloresGuanajuato.  It was there that he organized meetings with the townspeople and taught the farmers to work the land.

He was an enthusiastic and hard-working man, always worrying about the well-being of his community.  To help the indigenous, he built an estate where he established a pottery shop, a tanning shop, a blacksmith stable, a carpentry store, and a looming shop.  In addition, he sent for bees from La Habana and introduced apiculture to the inhabitants of Dolores.

Up until that famous night, Hidalgo was a Creole priest, born in a hacienda inPénjamoGuanajuato in 1753, and Mexico continued as a Spanish colony, one of the most prosperous ones though full of social injustice.

Hidalgo’s liberal ideas led him to join forces with a group of people who opposed the Spanish dominance.  Together with this group of liberals, among them Ignacio AllendeAldama and Abasolo, they reached an agreement in Queretaro to begin a revolution in October of 1810.  However, they were discovered and forced to move up the date to September 16, 1810.   … continued

Mexican Revolution Facts


Beginning date: The Mexican Revolution war began the 20th of November 1910

 

Ending date: There is controversy regarding the end of the Mexican Revolution. Some sources believe it is marked by the Proclamation o the Mexican Constitution in 1917. Other sources state that it was in 1924 when President Plutarco Elias Calles took office.

 

Objectives-Goal: The initial purpose of the revolutionary movement was to overthrow General Porfirio Diaz who had been in power form more than 30 years.

 

Important Dates

September 15-16, 1910: President Porfirio Diaz presides over the Centennial Celebrations of the Mexican I Independence.

October 5, 1910: Francisco Madero, after fleeing to the United States, proclaims the Plan de San Luis in which he asks all Mexicans to rise against the government of Porfirio Diaz.

November 18, 1910: A date is set for Sunday 10  of November 1910.  The Serdan Brothers along with other Madero followers fight the police in the City of Puebla. This marks the beginning of the armed war.

March 11, 1911: Emiliano Zapata and his force took arms in Villa de Ayala Morelos.

May 25, 1911: President Porfirio Diaz resigns after 30 years in power.

November 6, 1911: President Francisco I Madero took office after winning the elections in October 1911.

February 22, 1913: President Madero was assassinated by orders of  Victoriano Huerta.

March 26, 1913: Following The Plan of Guadalupe, a document drafted on March 23, 1913, by Venustiano Carranza that nullified any claim of legitimacy of Huerta’s government, Carranza, and Alvaro Obregon call to arms against Huerta‘s regime.

September 29, 1913: Franciso Pancho Villa and the Northern Division join the Constitutionalist revolution.

April 3, 1914: After taking the city of Torreon in Coahuila Pancho Villa and the Northern Division are on their way of defeating  President Victoriano Huerta‘s forces.

July 15, 1914: President Victoriano Huerta resigns and leaves the country.

December 6, 1914: Zapata and Villa occupy Mexico City and march with a force of 50 thousand men.

February 5, 1917: The Mexican Constitution is promulgated.

May 1, 1917: Venustiano Carranza assumes the Mexican Presidency.

Mexican Independence Facts Hechos de la Independencia de México


1. Mexican Independence Day is celebrated every September 16.  Cinco de Mayo is not Mexico’s Independence Day. 

 

2. The Mexican Independence war begun on September 16, 1810 and ended on September 27, 1821. La guerra de Independencia comenzó el 16 de Septiembre de 1810 y concluyó el 27 de Septiembre de 1821. 

 

3.  The movement for independence was inspired by the Age of Enlightenment and the liberal revolutions of the last part of the 18th century.  El moviemento de indepencia en Mexico se inspiró en la Era de la Ilustración y las revoluciones liberales sucedidas a finales del siglo 18.

 

4.   The Mexican Independence War sought to gain autonomy from  Spanish Rule.  El objetivo de la guerra de Independencia de Mexico fue la liberación del yugo Español.

 

5.   Mexico was a conquered by the Spaniards in 1521.  The colonial period went from 1521 to 1821. Mexico fue conquistado por los Españoles en 1521 y la época colonial duro hasta 1821.

 

6.   The Shout of Dolores, or El Grito, by father Miguel Hidalgo symbolizes de beginning of the independence war.  El Grito de Independencia simboliza y marca el inicio del movimiento de Independencia.

 

7.  The Shout of Dolores by given by Father Miguel Hidalgo in what now is known as Dolores in the State of Guanajuato.  El Grito de Independencia fue dado por Don Miguel Hidalgo, en lo que es hoy el Estado de Guanajuato.

 

8.   Father Miguel Hidalgo, a Catholic Priest, is known as the Father of the Mexican Nation. Don Miguel Hidalgo es reconocido como el Padre de la Nación Mexicana.

 

9. The first independent government in Mexico was that of Agustin de Iturbide. He was named Constitutional Emperor of Mexico. The Mexican Empire was short lived. 1821-1823  El primer gobierno independiente en Mexico fue el de Agustin de Iturbide y fue llamado el Imperio Mexicano que duro muy poco. 1821-1823

 

10.   The first elected Mexican President was Guadalupe Victoria who’s presidency went from 1824 to 1829.   El primer presidente electo de Mexico fue Guadalupe Victoria 1824-1829  

 

¡Viva México! ¡Viva México! ¡Viva México!